Today, with the recovery of demand in the Western automobile market and the continuous increase in the number of vehicles in developing economies, fuel consumption and pollution continue to increase. Governments and manufacturers are actively exploring ways to improve fuel economy to save energy and reduce emissions. More and more Electronic functions have also increased the proportion of semiconductor components in vehicles. Facing the dual challenges of environmental protection and enriching consumer experience, semiconductor manufacturers are using their technical expertise to develop various solutions that meet automotive specifications.
Challenges of automotive applications
The automotive electronics market has always been one of the important application areas of the semiconductor industry. Today’s automobiles are no longer just a means of transportation. The demand for safety, comfort and multiple functions has made the cost ratio of electronic products in the entire vehicle continue to rise. In recent years, the continuous double-digit strong growth momentum of the Chinese auto market has attracted the attention of semiconductor manufacturers.
However, devices used in automotive applications have different requirements from general industrial applications and are more difficult to meet. Due to the particularity of automotive applications, the electronic products have a great impact on the safety and reliability of the entire vehicle. Therefore, for electronic component manufacturers, on the one hand, they must pay more attention to reliability and other indicators in product design and manufacturing. Certification, on the other hand, also requires suppliers to strictly control the selection of parts and components to ensure that supporting products meet the requirements of reliability and performance.
ON Semiconductor’s energy-efficient automotive semiconductor solutions
Automotive is one of ON Semiconductor’s key application markets. A wide range of products include power management, protection, processing, signal conditioning and control. These devices used in automobiles have passed the AEC certification and the Production Device Approval Program (PPAP), ensuring that ON Semiconductor’s components meet the design specifications and customers can also achieve the desired quality level. ON Semiconductor’s commitment to the automotive market is not only to deliver products, but to ensure that manufacturing and quality meet the industry’s requirements for reliability and robustness. In 2009, ON Semiconductor delivered more than 2.9 billion chips with a defect rate of less than 120 ppb (parts per billion).
ON Semiconductor has a long history and rich experience in providing products for automotive electronic systems for more than 40 years. It has a broad lineup of rugged and innovative high-efficiency integrated devices that help reduce emissions, save fuel, and improve lighting, safety, connectivity, and infotainment power supply system. Now we will introduce the three aspects of vehicle network, automotive lighting and engine management, and powertrain.
Figure 1: Distribution map of ON Semiconductor’s automotive electronics solutions
1. In-vehicle networkplan
In-vehicle network (IVN) applications need to reduce the cost and space occupied as much as possible, while improving the stability and long-term reliability of the system, so the integration of components needs to be improved. ON Semiconductor has many IVN devices, including various transceivers for local interconnection networks (LIN) and controller area networks (CAN). For example, ON Semiconductor’s NCV7420 integrates a linear regulator and a LIN transceiver, which effectively saves PCB board space, and can also provide independent power supply for the MCU, effectively suppressing the interference of other modules on the MCU power supply.
Another example is ON Semiconductor’s single-wire LIN transceiver AMIS-30600 for IVN applications, which can be used as the interface between the protocol controller and the physical bus, and is particularly suitable for driving the LIN system bus in automotive and industrial applications. It can also be used in standard ISO9141 systems. In order to reduce current consumption, AMIS-30600 provides a standby mode. The transceiver uses I2T100 technology to integrate high-voltage analog circuits and digital functions on the same chip, and provides an ultra-safe solution to meet current IVN requirements through infinite short-circuit protection in fault conditions.
Recently, ON Semiconductor introduced a feature-rich local LIN transceiver NCV7321. It can be used as the interface between the LIN protocol controller and the physical bus in low data rate IVN applications. NCV7321 has excellent electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and rugged system-level electrostatic discharge (ESD) performance of up to 13 kV. It does not require external ESD components and has lower power consumption. It is very suitable for the harsh environment of automotive applications.
NCV7321 uses ON Semiconductor’s innovative I3T technology and intelligent power supply technology to enable high-voltage and sensitive digital technologies to coexist on the same chip. It complies with LINv2.1 and J2602 specifications and has the same functions as AMIS-30600, but with different pin outputs, providing customers with alternative products that comply with existing LIN transceivers. The device adopts a high-density, space-saving SOIC-8 package. Typical applications include a variety of body electronic functions and comfort function applications, such as remote control door unlocking receivers, window and sunshade lifters, alarms, power mirrors and seats Chair adjuster, and other functions such as electronic steering lock and tire monitoring electronic control unit (ECU).
The outstanding feature of NCV7321 is that it meets the car’s power saving goal to the greatest extent, and its current consumption in sleep mode is only 10 µA. Other key features include thermal shutdown, fuzzy short circuit protection and 45 V load dump protection. Figure 2 shows a typical circuit based on the NCV7321 LIN transceiver. It is worth mentioning that the device supports a voltage range of -45 V to 45 V, can withstand a rated 5 kV ESD pulse, and provides a powerful protection function.
Figure 2: Typical LIN circuit based on ON Semiconductor NCV7321
The LIN bus transmits data of control equipment at a low rate (up to 20 kBaud), such as door locks, rearview mirrors, car seats, and sunroofs that do not require strict time requirements. Each node of the LIN bus protocol uses only a single wire, which minimizes the wiring cost. The products provided by ON Semiconductor comply with the standards of the United States (SAE J2602-2) and Europe (LIN physical layer specification revision 2.1). NCV7321 provides a new choice for the world’s leading automotive suppliers to integrate LIN into their cars. This kind of LIN transceiver with lower power consumption and system cost is very attractive for a variety of existing and future automotive applications.
In addition, ON Semiconductor also provides stand-alone CAN transceivers, and its latest generation product NCV7340 represents industry-leading electromagnetic performance (ESD and EMI). These devices are designed with I3T technology to provide highly reliable and high-quality components with a failure rate measured in ppb.
2. Automotive lighting solutions
Nowadays, consumers hope that automotive lighting systems can provide more and more abundant functions, which requires the use of highly integrated solutions with excellent steady flow performance. ON Semiconductor provides standard products and customized devices for automotive lighting applications.
ON Semiconductor’s full-featured high-intensity discharge (HID) (or xenon lamp) ASIC helps to improve the performance of the headlight system. Compared with traditional halogen lamps, HID has improved color rendering, reduced power consumption, longer service life, and higher light output. In order to support its advanced functions, high-efficiency HID headlight ballasts and complex control circuits are required. ON Semiconductor’s HID lamp control system is a hybrid analog/digital solution using an 8-bit microcontroller or a dedicated state machine. It integrates a DC-DC controller and has comprehensive diagnostic functions (overvoltage, undervoltage, temperature sensor) , Endurance time counter), various communication interfaces (LIN, SPI), support 35 W (D1/D2/D3/D4) and 25 W (D5) lights. Figure 3 is a block diagram of the application specific integrated circuit.
Figure 3: Block diagram of ON Semiconductor’s full-featured HID ASIC
Its integrated linear current stabilization and controller NCV7680 for automotive lighting can power the combined taillights with a single chip, providing better performance and higher energy efficiency, and the footprint is smaller than the solutions on the market. The device contains 8 linear programmable constant current sources, suitable for current stabilization and control of automotive solid-state combined tail lights (RCL), and supports up to 75 mA per channel of light-emitting diode (LED) drive current.
NCV7680 integrates many functions and supports two brightness levels, one level is used for parking and the other level is used for rear lighting. If required, optional pulse width modulation (PWM) control can also be used. The system designer only needs to use an external resistor to set the output current (overall set point). In addition, for designs that require large currents, an optional external ballast field effect transistor (FET) can be used for power distribution according to the high current required by the design. The delayed power limit reduces the drive current under overvoltage conditions. This is very important for low current applications without external FETs.
Figure 4: NCV7680 brake light application block diagram
Typical applications for this device include combined taillights, daytime running lights (DRL), fog lights, central high-mount stop lights (CHMSL) arrays, turn signal lights and other external modulation applications, liquid crystal Display (LCD) backlights, lighting modules, etc. Compared with the discrete solution, the device can better match the LED output and is easy to identify faults.
ON Semiconductor is also developing NCV786xx power supply ballasts and dual LED driver product platforms for application in advanced LED headlight systems. The product platform was developed to meet the system-level requirements of driving multiple strings of LEDs with voltages up to 60 V, maintaining color temperature and controlling average current with PWM dimming, so that designers can use a system-level chip device to control the high beam and near Lights, daytime running lights, turn indicators and fog lights. The platform can communicate with an external microcontroller (MCU), change operating parameters, detect LED short circuits and provide advanced system diagnostic functions after power up. The first product of this series, NCV78663, will be put on the market in 2011.
3. Engine management and powertrainplan
Currently, approximately 80% of the engines in the world are gasoline engines. Gasoline engines use direct injection and turbocharging to improve the efficiency of simple and economical engines. Gasoline engines will continue to be the dominant force around the world in the future, but diesel engines have reached about 40% of the popularity in Europe, and there is also the potential for growth in North America.
Automotive electronics help improve efficiency through engine control, detection, and drive. Carefully controlled key components (such as injectors and valves) can achieve the highest efficiency. In order to improve the control ability, it is necessary to measure and process the pressure of the combustion chamber in real time, which can reduce the fuel consumption of gasoline engines by 30%.
ON Semiconductor has developed a variety of customized and standard products for gasoline engines, bi/flexfuel and diesel engines, covering a wide range of applications from gas and fuel supply for ignition control to exhaust gas aftertreatment subsystems. These product portfolios include: inductive angle sensor interfaces, pressure sensor interfaces, knock and wheel speed detection circuits, oil/urea and airflow interfaces, vehicle network components, throttle actuator drivers and pre-drivers, electromagnetic and piezoelectric fuel injection systems , Spark ignition, fan, pump and hydraulic control.
The fuel injection system is used to measure the fuel quantity and timing of each cylinder. The fully integrated multipoint (MPI) gasoline engine management system is still the most popular solution. However, gasoline direct injection systems have seen strong growth. To meet new demands, ON Semiconductor’s powertrain solutions cover applications such as transmission control and position detection, engine control, throttle control, fuel level sensors, air flow monitoring, valve control, and fuel injection control.
As the world’s leading supplier of high-performance and high-reliability silicon solutions, ON Semiconductor has formulated a complete automotive solution strategy, aiming to provide more and more automotive customers with ASIC, ASSP and discrete component-based Comprehensive solutions to help customers realize energy-saving applications in body, HVAC, power systems, safety, infotainment and LED lighting. In order to support China, the world’s largest automotive market, ON Semiconductor has also set up an automotive solutions engineering center in Shanghai to understand and solve customer problems through local professional technical support, provide reference designs and demonstration boards to help customers optimize system costs and Performance, promote the development process of China’s new automotive products.