“With the advent of the era of new energy vehicles and autonomous vehicles, new applications such as ADAS/AD, car interconnection, and V2X have been born. These have brought new application directions to the automotive architecture. With the evolution of the architecture, the automotive SoC has also been proposed In response to new demands, the industry now believes that a new architecture will reshape the layout of automotive SoCs. Under such a big change, what role will automotive-grade IP play?
With the advent of the era of new energy vehicles and autonomous vehicles, new applications such as ADAS/AD, car interconnection, and V2X have been born. These have brought new application directions to the automotive architecture. With the evolution of the architecture, the automotive SoC has also been proposed In response to new demands, the industry now believes that a new architecture will reshape the layout of automotive SoCs. Under such a big change, what role will automotive-grade IP play?
The emergence of automotive Zonal architecture, automotive IP may provide assistance
Now the number and types of sensors required by cars are increasing, including various sensors such as imaging, lidar, and infrared. Last year, Google’s Waymo used 29 cameras; in addition, these new applications also have significant SoC-level functional safety requirements. Improve; Moreover, more and more artificial intelligence is beginning to be applied to the automotive field, such as BEV/HEV power system SoC with artificial intelligence, and new smart sensors also increase the difficulty and complexity of sensor SoC design. As the number of sensors increases and the integration level becomes higher, higher computing and processing capabilities are required.
At the same time, automotive architecture has also ushered in a new application direction. There are three main areas: one is ADAS; the other is in-vehicle entertainment and car interconnection; and the third is an automotive gateway. The application focus of these aspects is also different. ADAS has high requirements for the number of sensors, AI reasoning capabilities, and image processing. Therefore, both the process and specifications are the highest. For example, some car-specific processors have started to transition from 16nm to 7nm and 5nm. . Due to the need to carry smooth user operations and Display interactions in car entertainment, performance requirements are also increasing, and more AI processing is also gradually being introduced. As a result, car entertainment chips can even replace some ADAS chips under certain conditions. The automotive gateway is not as high as ADAS in terms of performance and processing. It focuses more on the aggregation and distribution of network data, and has high requirements for priority and real-time.
The industry believes that a new automotive architecture is reshaping the layout of automotive SoCs. In the past, the automotive architecture segment was relatively discrete. Each car had about 30-100 ECUs for various Electronic controls, and there was no unified management mechanism to optimize the performance of each component. Later, with the increase in performance requirements, it is no longer realistic to only add ECUs. So now more and more ECU functions are integrated, also known as Domain logic architecture, in order to reasonably control the distribution and quantity of ECUs. . However, this method is relatively discrete because it is not very beneficial to the layout and wiring of the entire vehicle. The industry believes that a Zonal physical partition architecture will evolve in the future. It is no longer divided by logical functions, but by a certain area of the car. There are multiple central processing chips interconnected and better for data processing. Moreover, the sub-regional division method can better integrate discrete ECUs, and centralized management can also be done in terms of power management.
The new electronic architecture requires the redesign of integrated computing and smart sensor architecture, the integration of sensors, improved connectivity and upgradeability, and the highest reliability, safety, and energy efficiency ratio. Among them, a good car IP may play a very important role.
Automotive IP mainly includes interface IP, storage IP, processing operation IP, and security IP. Breaking down, in terms of interface IP, the current mainstream is 1Gbps Ethernet TSN. In the future, automotive Ethernet will migrate to 2.5Gb, 5Gb or 10Gb. MIPI alliance develops 15-meter-long channel A-PHY, automotive SerDes alliance (ASA) defines 15m high-speed asymmetric point-2 point communication, up to 13Gbps, while competing with each other, promote the evolution of long-distance high-speed data transmission interfaces. MIPI D-PHY is mainly used in displays, and MIPI DSI is an ideal choice in new applications such as mirrorless Display. In terms of storage IP, it is evolving from LPDDR4 to LPDDR5. At present, LPDDR4 3200mbps is the most popular, and it will move to LPDDR5 6400mbps in N7/N5. In terms of processing IP, embedded vision processors and DSPs, functional safety processors (ASIL BàASIL D), and SoC-level safety architectures are constantly improving, and the process technology has migrated from 28 nanometers to 16/14 nanometers, 8/7 nanometers, and 5 nanometers. . The requirements for confidentiality and security are also constantly improving. First, it must comply with ISO 26262, and ASIL D is increasingly required, and SoC-level security managers must be used.
Synopsys’ automotive-grade IP makes SoC automotive certification worry-free
Synopsys’ automotive-grade digital-analog hybrid AMS IP was selected by 32 major semiconductor companies in Europe, North America and Japan. The support for AEC-Q100 Grade 1 has almost no impact on PPA. Synopsys is also the first company to launch the ASIL D dual-core lockstep processor and safety manager architecture. Under the requirements of the automotive quality management system process, the development of IP has fully considered random hardware failures and AEC Q100 reliability tests.
According to Synopsys, its automotive-grade IP reduces risks and accelerates automotive SoC certification through three major aspects: functional safety, reliability and quality. In terms of functional safety, ISO 26262 functional safety assessment can be accelerated to ensure that designers reach the ASIL target level. By increasing IP reliability, Synopsys’ automotive-grade IP can reduce the risk and development time of SoC AEC-Q100 certification.
The design of “safety critical” systems must minimize the risk of catastrophic failure and respond to failures in a predictable manner. Therefore, the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) is divided into multiple levels from QM (lowest) to D (highest) according to the designated potential risks. The ICs in all these systems must meet ISO 26262 functional safety requirements. Synopsys’ IP products support all levels of ASIL to meet customer applications.
In order to meet the various levels of ASIL, Synopsys has added a variety of specific safety mechanisms to DesignWare automotive IP.
The first is at the protection level, such as some user interface protection, buffer protection points, error detection codes, parity protection data, parity protection of configuration registers, memory protection, and so on. There is also protection at the level of safety redundancy. There are further security protections such as register connection, validity check of key modules, and processor dual-core Lockstep support.
Synopsys’ IP FuSa has the definition of ISO 26262 in the entire development process, and follows the ASIL system process, up to the system level of ASIL D. Such IP will ease the certification of ASIL at the SoC level. At the same time, Synopsys is continuously improving the process. During the development phase, their IP can perform new monitoring and evaluation on the development of intellectual property rights for safety-critical operations, and improve new work products and performance. Deliver results. Its ARC processor and interface controller IP are applicable to all ASIL compatible automotive IP.
Synopsys’ entire IP division has obtained ISO 26262 development process certification, which means that they can revise the functional safety development process requirements. Furthermore, through third-party certification, it meets all applicable requirements of ISO 26262. According to ISO 26262 ASIL [B|C|D]The revised development process of compatible products develops and reviews automotive intellectual property products so that automotive customers can meet the ASIL D system and random requirements of ISO 26262 ASIL compatible products.
In the field of ADAS, Synopsys’ automotive “Safe and Secure” architecture can be called a trusted SoC execution environment. As shown in the figure below, the purple part is Synopsys’ IP, the green part is the safety network, and the blue part is a trusted software environment developed with Fusa certification. Connect each functional IP of the entire SoC through the green safety bus and safety manager. On the interface IP, load each controller through the STAR Memory & Hierarchical system tool to provide real-time evaluation and testing of all memories, logic and analog/mixed signals Circuit and other functions.
▲Synopsys has defined an internal reference temperature profile based on multiple car conventions
Synopsys’ SG has passed ISO 9001 quality certification. SG’s quality management system allows them to develop DesignWare’s intellectual property and tools on websites around the world, helping to ensure IP quality, reduce integration risks, and accelerate time to market. Not only can it increase confidence in the intellectual property development process, customers no longer need to perform second-party quality audits.
As the fastest growing automotive application, ADAS will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 19%. In this trend, Synopsys provides a complete ISO 26262 safety function integrated into the automotive intellectual property portfolio, from interface IP to basic IP, processor IP, and safety IP, all complying with ISO 26262 ASIL B and D standards. The devices and controllers also comply with AEC-Q100 design testing and automotive quality management, which will accelerate automotive SoC certification.